THE TESTIMONY OF CHURCH HISTORY

Up to this point we have looked strictly at the Word of God to shape our opinions. This is as it should be! Specific information about God and His will can only be found in His revelation to mankind, and not through the speculations or thinking of mankind.

But now we turn to the history of the early church. In doing so we do not place a greater emphasis on the beliefs of the early church than upon the Word of God, but we will see that a belief in the ultimate salvation of all is not a new thing. Universalism has had its witnesses throughout the history of the church.

I am not in this chapter attempting to prove the correctness of the understandings or teachings of the most average people in the first few centuries A.D., and many (if not most) of the

There are many books available concerning church history, but details concerning the doctrine of Universalism are not included in the popular works.

Complete information on all of these works can be found in the chapter entitled

Before observing the writings of church historians and the early

THE SIBYLLINE ORACLES: 500 B.C. - 150 A.D.

Written by different writers between 500 B.C. and 150 A.D., the Sibylline Oracles teach eonian suffering, followed by universal salvation. If nothing else, this shows us that

The Sibylline books provide evidence as to the beliefs which were held in this very early time period. In one of these books the end of the world is described as a time when all things, including hades, are to be melted down in the divine fire in order to be purified. (Allin, page 109)

In the second Sibylline book, speaking of the second death in Rev 20:14, we read that

THE FIRST 200 YEARS A.D.

Not many writings from this very early period are still in existence, but from the available documents we see a wide variety of beliefs concerning the future judgment and punishment.

Seven of the most prevalent

Ballou observes in his summary of this period in church history that there are two basic belief systems which co-existed within the church:

a. Those believing in the eventual salvation of all mankind, after a future punishment

of the wicked, and

b. Those believing in eternal punishment.

What is interesting is that at this point there are no apparent divisions or controversies, despite the difference in belief as to the destiny of mankind. And we learn that to the Believers in this period, the word

THE EARLY CREEDS

In defending eternal punishment, some will turn to the Creeds of the church. But it is interesting that for the first 500 years of Christianity not one creed hinted at eternal torment, and not one denied universal restoration, despite the fact that Universalism was very openly taught by many within the church.

Also during the first five centuries the first four General Councils were held at Nice, Constantinople, Ephesus and Chalcedon. Even though Universalism was widely and openly taught, there is no condemnation of the doctrine. No one thought it proper or necessary to include a statement concerning endless punishment in the articles of the faith.

IRENAEUS: 130 - 200 A.D.

Irenaeus viewed death as God's merciful provision for a fallen mankind. He did not believe that evil would last forever.

from the tree of life, not because He envied him the tree of life, as some

dare to assert, but because He pitied him, [and desired] that he should not

continue always a sinner, and that the sin which surrounded him should

not be immortal, and the evil interminable and irremediable.

(Jukes, page 177)

Irenaeus is credited by the historian Pfaff for the following quote:

and to reconcile again all things, that there may be an end of all impurities.

(Allin, page 108)

CLEMENS ALEXANDRIUS: 150 - 220 A.D.

Clemens Alexandrinus (or Clement of Alexandria), a church father who was an illustrious writer, had much to say about Universalism. The learned and orthodox Daille says,

with blessings, and conduces to the improvement of the sinful. There are many

evil affections which are to be cured only by suffering. Punishment is, in its

operation, like medicine: it desolves the hard heart, purges away the filth of

uncleanness, and reduces the swellings of pride and haughtiness; thus restoring

its subject to a sound and healthful state. It is not from hatred, therefore, that

the Lord rebukes mankind.

preach the gospel there, he preached it either to all, or only to the Jews.

If to all, then all who believed there, were saved, whether Jews or Gentiles.

And the chastisements of God are salutary and instructive, leading to

amendment, and preferring the repentance to the death of the sinner;

especially as souls in their separate state, though darkened by evil passions,

have a clearer discernment than they had whilst in the body, because they

are no longer clouded and encumbered by the flesh.

faithful, but also for the whole world (1Jo 2:2): therefore he indeed saves

all; but converts some by punishments, and others by gaining their free will;

so that he has the high honor, that unto him every knee should bow, of

things in heaven, on earth, and under the earth...

to discipline, in his work, and so will he continue to operate after this

life.

Saviour, not of some (only) and of the rest not ... for how is He Lord and

Saviour if He is not Lord and Saviour of all? ... But He is indeed Saviour

of those who believe ... while of those who do not believe He is Lord,

until having become able to confess Him, they obtain through Him the

benefit appropriate and suitable (to their case) ... He by the Father's

will directs the salvation of all.

through (by means of) the attendant angels, through various prior

judgments, through the final (pantelous) judgment, compels even

those who have become still more callous to repent.

follow Him of their own will ... that every knee may be bent to Him, of

those in heaven, on earth, and under the earth.

punishments, others by voluntary submission.

collectively or individually.

the Lord of the universe both generally and particularly.

Like all the early church fathers, Clemens held to a position of free will, but he believes in the power of God to lead all mankind, through a variety of means, to an ultimate subjection to Him.

THEOPHILUS: 169 - 181 A.D.

Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, wrote in

to continue being in sin forever; but, as it were by a kind of banishment,

cast him out of Paradise, in order that, having by punishment expiated

within an appointed time the sin, and having been disciplined, he should

afterward be recalled.

ORIGEN: 185 - 254 A.D.

Origen Adamantius was respected in his lifetime as few others have ever been. He was the most learned man of his day, and many examples from his writings show that

In roughly 230 A.D. he published

subjected to punishments proportioned to their several sins; and how long

each one shall suffer, in order to receive his deserts, God only knows.

But we suppose that the goodness of God, through Christ, will certainly

restore all creatures into one final state; his very enemies being overcome

and subdued.

under his feet. But if there is any doubt what is meant by putting enemies

under his feet, let us hear the apostle still further, who says, for ALL things

must be subjected to him (1 Corinthians 15) ... For the very expression, subjected

to Christ, denotes the salvation of those who are subjected.

to Christ, death the last enemy be destroyed, and the kingdom be delivered up

to the Father, by Christ.

Deu 4:24),

and says that rivers of fire go before his face (Dan 7:10), and that he shall

come as a refiner's fire and as fuller's soap, and purify the people (Mal 3:2).

As, therefore, God is a consuming fire, what is it that is to be consumed by

him? We say it is wickedness, and whatever proceeds from it, such as is

figuratively called wood, hay and stubble.

of God, will reserve himself for a dreadful and penal course of purification;

for the fire of hell shall, by its torments, purify him whom neither the apostolic

doctrine, nor the evangelical word has cleansed; as it is written, I will

thoroughly purify you with fire. (Isa 1:25) But how long, or for how

many ages, sinners shall be tormented in this course of purification which is

effected by the pain of fire, he only knows to whom the Father hath committed

all judgment, and who so loved his creatures that for them he laid aside the

form of God, took the form of a servant, and humbled himself unto death,

that all men might be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth.

(Ballou, page 118)

the whole creation is signified.

Origen has been described by many historians as a most qualified scholar, well versed in the Holy Scriptures. Of Origen the historian Phillip Schaff writes:

who with all his brilliant talents, and a host of enthusiastic friends and

admirers, was driven from his country, stripped of his sacred office,

excommunicated from part of the church, then thrown into a dungeon,

lead with chains, racked by torture, doomed to drag his aged frame and

dislocated limbs in pain and poverty, and long after his death to have his

memory branded, his name anathematized and his salvation denied; but

who nevertheless did more than all his enemies combined to advance the

cause of sacred learning, to refute and convert heathens and heretics, and

to make the church respected in the eyes of the world.

In his

faith.

and through his writing issued currents which were to help mold Christian

thought for generations.

In his

of the Greek Testament, which is older than the received text ... The value

of his testimony is due to his rare opportunities and life-long study of

the Bible before the time when the traditional Syrian and Byzantine text

was formed. Origen was an uncommonly prolific author, but by no

means an idle bookmaker. Jerome says he wrote more than other men

can read. Epiphanius, an opponent of Origen, states the number of his

works as six thousand, which is perhaps not much beyond the mark.

Now we look at the words of Origen as he debates with a Greek philosopher named Celsus:

all things shall be turned into fire. But our belief is that the Word shall

prevail over the entire rational creation, and change every soul into his

own perfection ... for although in the diseases and wounds of the body, there

are some which no medical skill can cure, yet we hold that in the mind

there is no evil so strong that it may not be overcome by the Supreme

Word and God. For stronger than all the evils in the soul is the Word, and

the healing power that swells in Him, and the healing He applies,

according to the will of God to every man.

Zephaniah: 'My determination is to gather the nations, that I may

assemble the kings, to pour upon them mine indignation, even all my

fierce anger, for all the earth shall be devoured with the fire of my

jealousy. For then will I turn to the people a pure language, that they

may call upon the Lord, to serve Him with one consent.' Consider

carefully the promise, that all shall call upon the name of the Lord and

serve Him with one consent; also that all contemptuous reproach shall

be taken away, and there shall be no longer any injustice or vain speech,

or a deceitful tongue.

Origen provides some valuable evidence as to the use of the word

Interestingly, Theodore of Mopsuestia, an opponent of Origen, agreed with him in calling the future penalty

In Origen's writings he never treats Universalism as a topic which is counter to orthodox teachings. It is interesting that despite Origen's voluminous writings, no one seems to take issue with his Universalism during his lifetime. Origen was challenged by the church in his day, but not concerning his views on Universalism. About forty years after Origen's death, controversy arose over his writings, but again no attack was made upon his stance on universal salvation, until the contention lasted a century.

Origen's influence was far stronger in the Eastern (Greek) churches than in the West (Latin), probably due at least in part to the language difference.

GREGORY THAUMATURGUS: 220 - 250 A.D.

Gregory Thaumaturgus, a student of Origen, became one of the most eminent bishops of the time. It was well known that Gregory held to the doctrine of Universal Restoration.

AFTER ORIGEN'S DEATH: 254 TO 390 A.D.

During this time period no evidence is found to imply that Origen's Universalism created any controversy within the church, even though his writings were scrutinized and were often attacked in other subject matters. Even Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis (Cyprus), a believer in endless punishment, did not attack Origen's doctrine of Universalism, even though he persecuted the

Between 370 and 383 A.D. Universalism seems to have been, at least for a time, the belief of a majority of the most eminent orthodox church fathers in the East. Gregory Nyssen, Didymus, and Jerome advocated Universalism, while Gregory Nazianzen vacillated between this doctrine and the doctrine of endless punishment. The latter wrote:

should not be immortal: and so the penalty turns out a kindness, for thus I

am of opinion it is God punishes.

In this era it appears that the majority of early Christians believed that all mankind, through Christ, would be ultimately restored. St. Basil the Great (c. 329-379) was not a believer in the doctrine of universal reconciliation, but he writes in his

those who are punished.

A momentous event in church history took place in 313 A.D. when Christianity was officially declared tolerable. In the years that followed, Christianity continued to grow in favor with Constantine. But as persecution gave way to acceptance, councils frequently assembled, and arguments ensued. Deposition and excommunication were decreed. But even in the midst of this, Athanasius, the guardian of the Nicene faith, always quoted Origen as orthodox.

Lest we think of the church leaders of this age as without blemish, the highly respected Gregory Nazianzen described the clergy as

NOTES FROM CHURCH HISTORIANS

Ethelbert Stauffer, writing on the early church:

All-Merciful and All-Powerful God would overcome even the final 'no' of

the self-sufficient world.

According to historian Henry Nutcomb Oxenham:

holiest and wisest of the Fathers, and was not taught as an integral part

of the Christian faith by any even of those who believed it as an opinion.

The historian Pfaff writes:

many Jewish teachers, and some of the Fathers.

Dietelmaier reports:

in the East and West, and had very many defenders.

Reuss reports:

recommended by very many of the greatest thinkers of the ancient

church, and of modern times.

C. B. Schleuter:

Basil, Ambrose himself, and Jerome, taught everywhere the universal

restitution of things, asserting simultaneously with it, an end of

eternal punishment.

In the Schaff-Herzog

schools, of which four (Alexandria, Antioch, Caesarea, and Edessa or

Nisibis) were Universalist; one (Ephesus) accepted conditional

immortality; one (Carthage or Rome) taught endless punishment of

the wicked.

Geisler, a great church historian, writes:

creatures, and the finiteness of the torments of hell, was so common in the

West, and so widely diffused among opponents of Origen, that though it

might not have sprung up without the influence of his school, yet it had

become quite independent of it.

permeated, from Gregory of Nyssa downwards, with the wider

Hope.

EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA: 265 - 340 A.D.

Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and friend of Constantine, wrote:

as a potter his own work, as Jer 18:6 says: i.e., to restore them once again

to their former state.

opened a way of return to life for the dead bound in chains of death.

(Allin, page 99)

and in hades, may obtain salvation from Him.

ATHANASIUS: 296 - 373 A.D.

Especially known for defending the deity of Christ, Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, was called

of hades, and sitting by the gates, sees all the fettered beings led

forth by the courage of the Saviour.

MARCELLUS OF ANCYRA: 315 A.D.

Some of the writings of Marcellus were preserved by Eusebius:

Act 3:21)

but that the Apostle designed to point out that time, in which all things

partake of that perfect restoration.

DIDYMUS - ROUGHLY 300 TO 390 A.D.

Didymus

Jerome also said that Didymus was

From his writings and from the fact that he was condemned for his views over 150 years later by the General Council of Constantinople, we know that Didymus was clearly a Universalist.

opinion on the conversion of devils.

Didymus himself writes:

in the fullness of the dispensation instituted for the salvation of all.

(Commentary on 1 Peter 3)

Didymus was a voluminous writer, but only a few of his works survived the passing of time and the destruction by decree of later councils. During his lifetime he was fully accepted as orthodox.

GREGORY NYSSEN: 332 - 398 A.D.

A respected bishop and theologian who followed many of Origen's teachings, Gregory Nyssen (or Gregory of Nyssa) taught frequently on the matter of Universalism, and it could even be said that Universalism was at the very heart of his teachings. Yet Gregory was always well respected, and considered to be very orthodox. Following are a few direct quotations:

immortal goodness embrace within itself every rational creature; so that of

all who were made by God, not one shall be excluded from his kingdom.

All the viciousness, that like a corrupt matter is mingled in things, shall be

dissolved and consumed in the furnace of purgatorial fire; and everything

that had its origin from God, shall be restored to its pristine state of

purity.

[Speaking on 1Co 15:22-28]

declares the extinction of all sin, saying, that God will be all in all. For God

will be truly all in all only when no evil shall remain in the nature of things,

as he is never engaged in evil...

to restore by means of the everlasting purgation and expiatory sufferings, those

who have gone even to this extremity of wickedness.

those who have sinned, but works good alone by separating from evil, and

drawing to a share in blessedness.

(Pridgeon, page 286)

the creature, which he has formed, back to that state of grace which first

existed.

out of the circle of being.

inventor of evil himself.

Like others of his day, Gregory often used the word

Gregory was always viewed as one of the most influential leaders of orthodoxy, and he was not condemned for his very blatant views concerning Universalism during his lifetime. The historian Neander writes:

and maintained with the greatest ability in works written expressly for that

purpose by Gregory of Nyssa ... All punishments are means of purification,

ordained by divine love to purge rational beings from moral evil, and to

restore them back to that communion with God which corresponds to their

nature. God would not have permitted the existence of evil, unless He had

forseen that by the Redemption all rational beings would in the end,

according to their destination, attain to the same blessed fellowship with

Himself.

It was not until two or three centuries after his death that Gregory's Universalism became a point of contention.

HILLARY: 354 A.D.

Hillary, Bishop of Poictiers, is considered one of the champions of orthodoxy. He very much respected the writings of Origen, and translated some 40,000 lines of Origen's writings according to Jerome. Hillary said:

destined to be found by the Good Shepherd.

As for giving Christ the ends of the earth as His possession, Hillary insists this refers to a universal dominion which is summed up in Paul's words,

EVAGRIUS PONTICUS: ROUGHLY 390 A.D.

Evagrius Ponticus was a respected scholar and monk, and a Universalist. Due to the later condemnation of Universalism over 150 years after his death, most of his writings were destroyed.

AMBROSE OF MILAN: 339 TO 397 A.D.

Most of the others mentioned were from the Eastern church, but now we turn to the Western church to look at Ambrose, archbishop of Milan in Italy. Ambrose was a man of moderate learning, but he became a very powerful figure in the church, and in the state.

Ambrose believed that nearly all who are tried on Judgment Day would sooner or later be saved. He did speak of a class of individuals, the impious or infidels, who, along with the Devil and his angels, would have no chance for restoration.

resurrection, these shall be burnt, until they fulfill their appointed times, between

the first and the second resurrection; or, if they should not have fulfilled them

then, they shall remain still longer in punishment.

the infernal abodes, should be set free from their perpetual bonds.

Christ, when among the dead,

destroying the law of death.

not annihilated, but is changed for the better; so that, instead of an earthly

man, he is made a spiritual man, and our believing that he who is destroyed,

is so destroyed that all taint is removed, and there remains but what is pure

and clean.

remedy as the end of evil ... God did not appoint death from the beginning, but

gave it as a remedy.

is elsewhere said, 'the whole creation shall be set free from the bondage of

corruption.

Adam all die, so, too, in Christ shall all be made alive.

Ambrose insisted that subjection to Christ is loving submission, and that in this sense all must become Christ's subjects.

vices having been cast away, and sin reduced to submission, one spirit of all

people, in one sentiment, shall with one accord begin to cleave to God, then

God will be All in All.

THE FIRST CENSURE AGAINST UNIVERSALISM: 394 A.D.

It was not until 394 A.D. that we find the first censure, on record, of Universalism. But at this point the censure is not against the salvation of all mankind, but opposes only the salvation of the devil.

ORIGEN STILL RESPECTED IN 397 - 398 A.D.

Origen's books

JEROME: 340 - 420 A.D.

Jerome began by supporting the view of a restoration from hell.

all the wrath of the fury of the Lord, and this in pity and with a design to heal...

in order that every one may return to the confession of the Lord, that in

Jesus' Name every knee may bow, and every tongue may confess that He

is Lord. All God's enemies shall perish, not that they cease to exist, but

cease to be enemies...

created, and man, who has been expelled from Paradise, will be once more

restored to the tilling of Paradise. These things, then, will take place

universally.

will not annihilate them; but will prolong its visit, till the impiety which is

in them shall be consumed.

In one instance Jerome referred to the fire of Gehenna as

Jerome had actually incorporated some of the writings of Origen and others into his own works, without censuring the writings in any way. Under growing pressure, Jerome changed his position and began to deny the salvation of the devil and of the damned. But even with his new position, he did not appear to consider Universalism one of the significant errors of Origen.

Even while distancing himself from the writings of Origen, Jerome still continued to quote Origen as a qualified expounder of scripture. Later in life, though, he kept silent on the issue of Universalism. But as to the prevalence of the doctrine of Universalism in his day, Jerome states:

its king, the ultimate forgiveness of the devil and all rational creatures.

(Allin, page 150)

Jerome once went so far as to say in a letter that Origen was condemned not on account of his doctrines, but because of jealousy. (Allin, page 135)

TITUS: 340 - 370 A.D.

Titus, bishop of Bostra, was referred to by Jerome as

The

it exist in the original constitution of nature. It was made afterwards, as a

remedy for sinners, that it might cure them. And the punishments are holy, as

they are remedial and salutary in their effect upon transgressors; for they are

inflicted, not to preserve them in their wickedness, but to make them cease

from their wickedness.

JOHN CASSIAN: 360 - 435 A.D.

John Cassian is described in the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia as follows:

and John Cassian) many theologians believed in universal salvation;

and indeed the whole Eastern Church until after 500 A.D. was inclined

to it.

DIODORE: 370 - 390 A.D.

Diodore was bishop of Tarsus and bishop of Jerusalem. In McClintock-Strong's

of Jerusalem, was also a Universalist, who, in opposition to the then

general prevalence of allegorical interpretation, strictly adhered to the

natural import of the text in his many commentaries on the Scriptures.

He defended Universalism on the ground that the divine mercy far exceeds

all the effects and all the deserts of sin.

Diodore himself wrote:

for a certain brief period ... according to the amount of malice in their works.

They shall therefore suffer punishment for a short space, but immortal

blessedness, having no end awaits them ... the penalties to be inflicted for

their many and grave crimes are very far surpassed by the magnitude of the

mercy to be shewed them. The resurrection, therefore is regarded as a blessing

not only to the good but also to the evil.

GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS: 370 A.D.

President of the second great Ecumenical Council, Gregory of Nazianzus was considered the most learned bishop in one of the most learned ages of the Church. (Allin, page 117)

Perhaps the foremost man in the entire Church during his day, Gregory raised no objection to the teaching of Universalism, and there is reason to contend that he himself held this belief. He taught that when Christ descended into hades, He liberated all the souls there in prison, not just some of them. (Allin, page 118)

RUFINUS: 390 A.D.

Rufinus clearly taught that the future punishment of the wicked was to be temporary. (Allin, page 137)

THEODORET THE BLESSED: 393 - 466 A.D.

Theodoret the Blessed was bishop of Cyrrhus, or Cyprus, in Syria, and a historian. He continued the historian Eusibius' work to 428 A.D. McClintock-Strong describes Theodoret as,

Theodoret writes:

in order to heal, like a physician, that he may arrest the course of our

sin.

As all men became mortal through Adam,

mankind (all men) follow the Lord Christ, and be made partaker of the

Resurrection.

may put a stop to the course of our iniquity.

Theodoret describes Christ as saying to the devil:

only.

Theodoret clearly teaches that death is a medicine, not a penalty. According to Theodoret, to imagine that God, in anger at a little eating, inflicted death as a penalty, is to copy the abominable (heretic) Marcion. (Allin, page 140)

PERSECUTION OF

As opposition grew, some of the Origenists fell under great persecution, including a group of Origenist monks at Nitria who were captured and tortured.

Theophilus called a Synod of bishops at Alexandria in 399 A.D. and a decree was issued condemning Origen, and athematizing all who approved of his works. This was the first decree of its kind. Origenists fled to other countries.

Anastasius, the new Pope in 400 A.D. issued a decree which was received through all the West, condemning the works of Origen.

UNIVERSALISM STILL NOT CONDEMNED

What is most amazing is that now, nearly 400 years after the departure of Christ, we see the very first official condemnations of Origen, but even now his view on the salvation of all mankind has not been condemned. The salvation of the devil and his angels is here condemned along with some other issues, but the salvation of all mankind is not addressed. As a matter of fact, during this time period some of the orthodox clearly continue to hold to this doctrine.

Others who deserve mention from this time period who supported the doctrine of Universalism are the Basilidians (130 A.D.), the Carpocratians (140 A.D.), Isidore of Alexandria (370-400 A.D.) and Palladius of Gallatia (400 A.D.).

AUGUSTINE: 354 - 430 A.D.

When a disturbance over various theological issues arose at Tarraco (Spain), two of the bishops called upon Augustine in Africa. Augustine immediately wrote a small book, always meant

Admitting that there might be some exceptions, he used Mat 25:46 as his overriding authority, where the same Greek word is used for the torments of the damned as for the life of the saints. Augustine reasoned that if

It appears that this is the very earliest claim that the original word

Augustine's opinions carried great weight within the church, especially in the West. Because of his influence, and because of the ignorance of both Greek and Hebrew for most men in the years to follow, the doctrine of universal reconciliation became silenced until its revival in the 16th century, and the doctrine of an endless torment became the norm within the orthodox church.

By all accounts, Augustine was a great man. He was very familiar with the scriptures, competent in his learning, warm, devotional, pious, moral, and very fair even with his opponents. He became the father of the present orthodox system. But Augustine was, like many of the other church fathers, a hasty writer, and not strong in the Greek language.

As a final note on Augustine; while he was one of the strongest proponents of the doctrine of eternal torment, he admits:

not believe in endless torments.

Allin, page 150)

It is interesting that in making this observation, Augustine does not declare those not believing in endless torments to be unorthodox.

INFLUENCE OF THE LATIN VULGATE TRANSLATION

It would seem that the more learned a Christian was in the original languages, the more likely he or she was to see the doctrine of the restitution of all things. Augustine, who said he hated the Greek language and who read only the Latin Vulgate translation, began to incline toward the doctrine of eternal torment. The Greek

CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA: 412 A.D.

Cyril frequently taught that every soul would be freed from hades by Christ.

future ... The souls of men who had been caught in his toils to their ruin,

came out of the underground gates, and, leaving the hiding places of the

pit, escape.

Cyril describes that Christ spoiled hades, and:

THEODORUS: 380 TO 429 A.D.

Theodorus (or Theodore), bishop of Mopsuestia, was an eminent orthodox father in the Eastern church, and a voluminous writer. He was not a follower of Origen, and even opposed his allegorical system of interpreting scripture. But he was clearly a believer in Universalism.

Theodore, and perhaps Diodorus, after they were dead for 125 years, were condemned as Nestorians in the Fifth Council, a gathering that was unrecognized by many. But even here their position favoring Universalism was not raised as an issue.

Some quotations from Theodore:

immortality, thenceforeward the proclivity to evil should be removed.

(Allin, page 142)

God

renewal, and restoration of the whole creation, through Him, ... Now this

will take place in a future age, when all mankind and all powers (virtues)

possessed of reason, look up to Him, as is right, and obtain mutual concord

and firm peace.

MAXIMUS OF TURIN: 422 A.D.

Maximus appears from his extant writings to teach the liberation of all souls from hades, and that the purpose of death is to correct the sinner.

all, as says the Evangelist: 'The Lamb of God Who taketh away the sins of

the world.' ... We read in the Scriptures, that the salvation of the entire

human race, was won by the Redemption of the Saviour ... the everlasting

safety of the entire world.

430 TO 450 A.D.

Universalism was accepted by a significant number of monks around Cesarea in Palestine.

PETER CHRYSOLOGUS: 435 A.D.

Peter Chrysologus, bishop of Ravenna, said in a sermon on the Good Shepherd that the lost sheep represents:

one, seeks the one in order that in the one he may restore all.

GENNADIUS: 458 A.D.

Gennadius, Patriarch of Constantinople, said:

the head ... For, said He, when lifted up, I will draw all men unto Myself.

(Allin, page 152)

BARSUDAILI (HIEROTHEUS): END OF 5TH CENTURY

Toward the end of the fifth century Barsudaili, an Abbot of Edessa, taught Universalism under the name

JUSTINIAN: 540 A.D.

Justinian ruled the throne of the eastern empire, and was one of the few sovereigns who had ambitions of taking part in theological disputes. He ordered a long Edict to be drawn up, addressed to Mennas (archbishop of Constantinople), which was published around 540 A.D. This decree was aimed directly against Universalism, and went forth with the full force of law in the land.

ALEXANDER OF ABYLA: 540 TO 546 A.D.

Alexander, bishop of Abyla, was bold enough to stand against the emperor's authority. As a result he was excluded from the catholic communion.

THE HOME SYNOD: 541 A.D.

In 541 A.D. the Emperor Justinian caused the Patriarch Mennas to convene at Constantinople the

THE FIFTH GENERAL COUNCIL: 553 A.D.

Under the watchful eye of Emperor Justinian, the Fifth General Council was opened in Constantinople with 151 bishops present from the Greek and African churches. During the course of the meeting, Justinian sent a message exhorting the bishops to examine the doctrine of

Included in the actions of the council:

are temporal, so that they will, at length, come to an end, or whoever holds a

restoration either of the demons or of the impious, let him be anathema.

This decree fixed the orthodox faith to the present day.

MAXIMUS: 645 A.D.

Maximus criticized the teachings of Gregory of Nyssa, but he did teach Universalism.

immortality of the flesh ... so, too, the fallen powers of the soul must,

in the process of the ages, cast off the memories of sin implanted in

them, and having passed all the ages ... come to God; and so by the

knowledge, not the fruition of good, receive strength and be restored

to their original state.

CLEMENT OF IRELAND: 740 A.D.

Clement, a native of Ireland, became an ordained minister in the Romish communion. He later discarded certain superstitions of the church, renounced its authority, rejected its decrees, and insisted that the Bible only was to be the authoritative guide to faith. He taught that Christ, when he descended into hell, restored all the damned.

Clement gathered several independent congregations in France and Germany.

In 744 A.D. Clement was deposed from the priesthood, condemned as a heretic, and imprisoned. It is probable that he died in prison.

JOHN PICUS: 1480 TO 1494

John Picus, earl of Mirandola and Concordia, was a distinguished scholar in Italy. He alarmed the church during this period by advancing his theological opinions.

merits but finite punishment.

The Pope ordered his examination, and brought a judgment censuring Picus, forbidding the reading of his books.

MARTIN LUTHER: 1483 - 1546

The reader may be surprised to find that the following words are attributed to the well known reformer, Martin Luther:

In the depth of the Divine mercy there may be opportunity to win it in the future.

(Phillips, page 43)

DANIEL DEFOE: 1660 - 1731

Daniel DeFoe, author of

WILLIAM LAW: 1686 - 1761

William Law, author of the classic

and that when, in Scripture his wrath, vengeance, etc. are spoken of, such

expressions are only used in condescension to human weakness, by way of

adapting the subject of the mysterious workings of God's providence to

human capacities.

Law held that God punishes no one, and that all evil originates either from matter, from the free will of man, and God permits suffering for the sake of a greater good. All beings will finally be happy. (From Southey's

GEORGE STONEHOUSE: 1714 - 1793

Sir George Stonehouse, a staunch Universalist, was a member of the well known

THOMAS NEWTON: 1761

Thomas Newton was nominated Bishop of Bristol in 1761, and was well respected as a man of learning and virtue. Newton wrote:

a torment and curse to all eternity ... His chastisements, like those of a

loving father, are designed, not to harden men in sin, but to recover them

to goodness, to correct and meliorate their nature.

nothing, and therefore guilty of no prior offence, sent into this world of

frailty, which it is well known beforehand they will so use as to abuse it,

and then for the excesses of a few years delivered over to torments of

endless ages, without the least hope or possibility of relaxation or

redemption. Imagine it you may, but you can never seriously believe it,

nor reconcile it to God and goodness.

JOHN HENDERSON: 1757 - 1788

John Henderson was born in Ireland in 1757. His father was an itinerant Methodist preacher. By the age of twelve, Henderson was teaching Latin and Greek in Lady Huntington's college in Wales. He eventually became fluent in Persian, Arabic, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Saxon, French, Spanish, Italian and German. Henderson wrote:

and certainly knows they will eat of them, it is of no importance in the

consideration of common sense, that he cautions, forbids, forewarns, or

that they having free will may avoid the poison. Who will not accuse him

of their death in sending them into circumstances where he fore-knew it

would happen? God fore-knows every thing - to his knowledge every

thing is certain.

the universe, I conclude them to be neither the will nor the work of God.

(Whittemore, page 241, 243)

GEORGE MACDONALD: 1824 - 1905

A Scottish preacher, poet and novelist, George MacDonald was referred to by C.S. Lewis as his

even into thine own consuming self? Death shall then die everlastingly, and

Hell itself will pass away, and leave her dolorous mansions to the peering day.

Then indeed wilt thou be all in all. For then our poor brothers and sisters, every

one - O God, we trust in thee, the Consuming Fire - shall have been burnt clean

and brought home. For if their moans, myriads of ages away, would turn heaven

for us into hell - shall a man be more merciful than God? Shall, of all his glories,

his mercy alone not be infinite?

One,

Elsewhere MacDonald writes:

destruction of sin.

HANNAH WHITALL SMITH: 1832 - 1911

Best known for her classic

From Chapter 22,

world, it must necessarily be that He would be compelled, in common

fairness, to provide a remedy that would be equal to the disease. I

remembered some mothers I had known, with children suffering from

inherited diseases, who were only too thankful to lay down their lives

in self-sacrifice for their children.

the universe, and I saw that it was true, as the Bible says, that 'as in Adam

all die even so in Christ should all be made alive.' As was the first, even

so was the second. The 'all' in one case could not in fairness mean less

than the 'all' in the other. I saw therefore that the remedy must necessarily

be equal to the disease, the salvation must be as universal as the fall.

final destiny of the human race.

every knee shall bow, of things in heaven, and things on earth, and things

under the earth, and every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is Lord

to the glory of God the Father.' Every knee, every tongue - words could

not be more all embracing. The how and the when I could not see; but the

one essential fact was all I needed - somewhere and somehow God was

going to make everything right for all the creatures He had created.

discovered could possibly have been all this time in the Bible, and I not have

seen it; and the moment I entered the house, I did not wait to take off my

bonnet, but rushed at once to the table where I always kept my Bible and

Concordance ready for use, and began my search. Immediately the whole

Book seemed to be illuminated. On every page the truth concerning the

'times of restitution of all things,' of which the Apostle Peter says 'God

hath spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began,'

shone forth, and no room was left for questioning.

From Chapter 23,

that a large proportion of the beings He had Himself created were

doomed to eternal misery, unless He were a selfish God?

any wideness that I could even conceive of.

Good Shepherd, and that the Good Shepherd is bound, by the very

duties of His ownership, to go after that which is lost, and to go until

He finds it. The word 'lost' therefore, to my mind, contains in itself the

strongest proof of ownership that one could desire. Who can imagine a

mother with a lost child ever having a ray of comfort until the child is

found, and who can imagine God being more indifferent than a mother?

HANNAH HURNARD: 1905 - 1990

The author of the best selling

Who loves righteousness and cannot bear evil, if that victory really means that

He cannot bring His own creatures at last to hate evil as He hates it, but must

confirm multitudes, indeed the majority of them, in their choice of evil for

ever and ever?

saw that any supposed interpretation of the teaching of the Holy Scriptures

which taught otherwise must be mistaken interpretations, because they are

totally at variance to the revelation of a Holy God Who loves righteousness

and hates evil, and Who only permits its existence temporarily that all

creatures may learn to hate it and turn from it for ever.

the words everlasting, eternal, or forever and ever in connection with hell.

(Quotations from pages 5-30 of

WILLIAM BARCLAY: 1907 - 1978

William Barclay devoted his entire life to the study of Scripture. Few, if any, knew the Greek language as well as Barclay.

In his autobiography entitled

universalist. I believe that in the end all men will be gathered into the

love of God.

Barclay cites other believers in Universalism, including Origen and Gregory of Nyssa, but he goes on to delineate his own reasons for coming to a conclusion of universalism:

than justify this belief. Jesus said: 'I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will

draw all men to myself.' (Joh 12:32) Paul writes to the Romans: 'God has consigned

all men to disobedience, that he may have mercy on all.' (Rom 11:32) He writes to

the Corinthians: 'As in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive'

(1Co 15:22); and he looks to the final total triumph when God will be

everything to everyone. (1Co 15:28) In the First Letter to Timothy we read

of God 'who desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth,'

and of Christ Jesus 'who gave himself a ransom for all.' (1Ti 2:4-6) The New

Testament itself is not in the least afraid of the word all.

Mat 25:46 where it is said that the

rejected go away to eternal punishment, and the righteous to eternal life.

The Greek word for punishment is kolasis, which was not originally an ethical

word at all. It originally meant the pruning of trees to make them grow better.

I think it is true to say that in all Greek secular literature kolasis is never used

of anything but remedial punishment. The word for eternal is aionios. The

simplest way to put it is that aionios cannot be used properly of anyone but

God; it is the word uniquely, as Plato saw it, of God. Eternal punishment is then

literally that kind of remedial punishment which it befits God to give and which

only God can give.

not only in this world, but in any other world there may be, the grace of God is

still effective, still operative, still at work. I do not believe that the operation of

the grace of God is limited to this world. I believe that the grace of God is as wide

as the universe.

when all things will be subject to him, and when God will be everything to

everyone. (1Co 15:24-28) For me this has certain consequences. If one man

remains outside the love of God at the end of time, it means that that one man

has defeated the love of God - and that is impossible. Further, there is only one

way in which we can think of the triumph of God. If God was no more than a

King or Judge, then it would be possible to speak of his triumph, if his enemies

were still agonizing in hell or were totally and completely obliterated and wiped

out. But God is not only King and Judge, God is Father - he is indeed Father more

than anything else. No father could be happy while there were members of his

family for ever in agony. No father would count it a triumph to obliterate the

disobedient members of his family. The only triumph a father can know is to

have all his family back home. The only victory love can enjoy is the day when

its offer of love is answered by the return of love. The only possible final triumph

is a universe loved by and in love with God.

Autobiography.

OTHERS ACCEPTING THE DOCTRINE OF UNIVERSAL RECONCILIATION

Jukes writes in

Jeremiah White and Peter Sterry,--and in the English Church, Richard

Clarke, William Law, and George Stonehouse, -- in Scotland, Thomas

Erskine of Linlathen and Bishop Ewing, -- and among those on the

Continent, Bengel, Oberlin, Hahn, and Tholuck, -- have been believers

in final restitution.

Thomas Allin, in

Tennyson, Browning and Mrs. Browning, Whitman, George MacDonald,

Florence Nightingale, Emerson, Longfellow, Mrs. Beecher Stowe, Bishop

Ewing of Argyll, Canon Kingsley, Bishop Westcott, F. W. Robertson,

Phillips Brooks, Canon Farrar, Schleiermacher, Pastor Oberlin.

(Allin, pages 166-7)

LESSONS FROM CHURCH HISTORY

1. As we have seen, a belief in an endless torment has not always been the dominant belief among Believers. Many, if not the majority of those within the early church, adhered to the doctrine of the ultimate reconciliation of all, including many of the most eminent

2. By the time the Creeds were finally revised to include the doctrine of eternal punishment, those in power within

3. One reason that the beliefs in universal reconciliation which existing in the early church are not better known is that many writings were destroyed when

4. The primary opposition to Universalism in

5. Perhaps the primary reason the orthodox church developed its doctrine of eternal punishment stemmed from its fear that if reasoning, and not a close study of Scripture in its original languages, that led to this doctrine. Had the leaders of

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