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This page was last updated on 26 June, 2016.

Moses’ birthday

Exod 7:7 And Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three years old, when they spoke to Pharaoh.
Num 14:33 33 And your children shall wander in the wilderness forty years, and bear your prostitutions, until your carcasses be wasted in the wilderness.
Deut 34:7 And Moses was an hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated.

Moses died at the age of 120 after 40 years in the desert. That means the plagues ended when Moses was 120-40=80 years old. The plagues also started in the year Moses was 80 years old. So all 10 plagues combined spanned a year or less.

According to Jewish understanding Moses was born on 7 Adar. Click. Click. Click.
The calculation is as follows.

Josh 4:19 And the people came up out of Jordan on the tenth day of the first month, and encamped in Gilgal, in the east border of Jericho.

Israel crossed the Jordan on 10 Nisan.

Josh 3:2 And it came to pass after three days, that the officers went through the host;

10 Nisan - 3 days = 7 Nisan

Deut 34:8 And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days: so the days of weeping and mourning for Moses were ended.

7 Nisan - 30 days = 7  Adar.

Deut 31:2 And he said to them, I am an hundred and twenty years old this day; I can no more go out and come in: also the LORD has said to me, You shall not go over this Jordan.

It’s understood as “today is my birthday”. Moses spoke those words on the day he died.

Born 7 Adar in a non leap year, celebrate the birthday 7 Adar II during a leap year.
Born 7 Adar-I or 7 Adar-II in a leap  year, celebrate the birthday 7 Adar in a non-leap year.
Born 7 Adar-II, celebrate the birthday 7 Adar II during a leap year.
So no matter when Moses was born, his birthday is always the month just before Nisan. Click. Click. Click.
A minority view is that a person born 7 Adar (non leap years) celebrates his birthday on 7 Adar-I and 7 Adar-II in leap years. Click. Sources claim Moses was born Adar-II so that would rule out the need for the minority view.

Moses was born on 7 Adar and always celebrated his birthday the Adar immediately preceding Nisan (the month of Passover). Meaning 7 Adar or 7 Adar-II.

Because the plagues started and ended in the year Moses was 80 they can’t have started before 7 Adar or Adar-II. They ended in the night of the 14 Nisan. Because the main reason of this article is pinpointing the date of the Plague of hail, I’ll try to narrow down that timeframe of 38 days.

Lev 23:5 In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is the LORD's passover.
Exod 7:25 And seven days were fulfilled, after that the LORD had smitten the river.

The first plague lasted 7 days. The duration of plagues 2-6 isn’t known, but it’s sure they all took at least a day when including the waiting time between them. So that’s another 5 days.
7 Adar +7 + 5 = 19 Adar
Conclusion: The plague of hail was between 19 Adar and 14 Nisan. 26 days

Exod 10:21 And the LORD said to Moses, Stretch out your hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt.
Exod 10:22 And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days:

The 9th plague, darkness, latest 3 days. The last plague took 1 day.

14 Nisan - 1 - 3 = 10 Nisan
Conclusion: The plague of hail was between 19 Adar and 10 Nisan. 22 days.

The dates on the Hebrew luni-solar calendar aren’t in sync with our Gregorian solar calendar so the dates ‘float’ on the Gregorian calendar. I don’t know the exact year of the Exodus with certainty so I list the possible time frames. Because of the minority view I’ll add the minority start date before the / which is 30 days earlier.

29 January/28 February - 20 March
31 January/2 March - 23 March
2 February/4 March - 25 March
9 February/11 March - 31 March
11 February/13 March - 3 April
16 February/18 March - 8 April - Leap year
19 February/21 March - 11 April - Leap year
23 February/25 March - 15 April - Leap year

The largest possible date range those 52/22 days fell in underlined in the list.

The duration between 6th and 9th plague is known. Namely: 52/22 days.

That info helps us to further narrow down the sowing date. Spring wheat surfaces about a week after sowing. Click
Spring wheat matures in about 110 days. That means 110-7=103 days after the hail. Which is  between 3 Tamuz or 23 Tamuz.
Converting all dates to the Gregorian calendar:

As you see the 50 day Pentecost count doesn’t even come near the calculated dates based on the time wheat matures. But the 10 July estimate is only 3 days off the real Pentecost date.

Another way to narrow down/verify the list is by examining the sowing dates:

Presently spring wheat isn’t sown before 15 March. An additional point for the 23 March date may be that it’s after the 21 March Equinox.


"But to the seventh day of the week he has assigned the greatest festivals, those of the longest duration, at the periods of the equinox both vernal and autumnal in each year; appointing two festivals for these two epochs, each lasting seven days; the one which takes place in the spring being for the perfection of what is being sown, and the one which falls in autumn being a feast of thanksgiving for the bringing home of all the fruits which the trees have produced"…
Philo The Decalogue XXX (159)

Conclusion: July Pentecost


According to the calculations on this website the plague of hail took place on Nisan 7.

Spring wheat surfaces about a week after sowing. The wheat wasn’t above ground yet so it was planted 1-6 days ago. 1-6 Nisan. The wheat matures in 110 days.

            1 Nisan        6 Nisan

Nisan                 29             23  ← Days left in month
Iyar                  29             29
Sivan                 30             30
                     —–– +          —–- +
Totaal                88             82

Substractin the subtotal from 110 gives the number of days in Tammuz.

                      22 Tammuz      28 Tammuz

Some sources state it’s 110 days after surfacing. Link link Adding 7 days.

                      29 Tammuz      6 Av

On the previous page 28 or 29 Tammuz was calculated for Pentecost.
Thatt dovetails perfectly with the above numbers.

Conclusion: July Pentecost


Winter wheat, spring wheat and rye

The Egyptians clearly had sown spring wheat because winter wheat would have been above ground for months and been destroyed by the hail. It can be argued that the fact the Egyptians grew spring wheat doesn’t prove the Israelites didn’t (also) grow winter wheat.
That’s true, so they could have used winter wheat in their own land, assuming winter wheat existed back then; which I don’t know.


The exact harvesting date depend on many things:

When you search internet to verify the numbers I used you will quickly figure out the 110 days I used is an established number, but not the only possible number. Could be a little more, could be a little less. But none of that is of real importance because all those numbers are way past the 50 day Pentecost count. You simply won’t find a grain that matures in 50+14=64 days.