Exodus

Version 2
Work in progress.
Still adding and reorganizing material.

Main page

— PREAMBLE —

- Pharaohs

- Moses


— IN MIDIAN —

- Midian

- Wilderness

- Burning bush

- Mountain of Fire


— WHEN —

- Generations

- New chronology 1

- New chronology 2


— PREAMBLE —

- 10 plagues

- Tiny Exodus

- Big Exodus

- Travel days


— RED SEA —

- Unknown

- Reeds, papyrus

- Located

- Changes


— PLACES —

- Succoth

- Etham/Shur


— ROUTES #1 —

Pharaoh → Red Sea

- Routes map

- Roads to Etham

- Wadis to Etham

- Etham → Tip Aqba

- Etham → Nuweiba


— CROSSING —

- Tip of the gulf

- Nuweiba Beach


— ROUTE #2 —

Red Sea → Mt. Sinai

- Marah

- Dopkah

- Alush

- Sinai option 1

- Sinai option 2


— MISC —

- Moon Mountain

- In the land of

- Travel days

- List of stops

- Water from rock

- Jordan crossing



- Maps & Lists



This page was last updated on 25 June, 2017.

The date of Exodus


1. Another revision of secular dates

This revision is slightly different from that on the previous page. The most striking point of this revision is that both Joseph and Moses occur in those lists.


2. Joseph = Imhotep


Joseph obviously has nothing to do with the Exodus. At least not directly. If Joseph can be matched with a certain Egyptian ruler then we can align Biblical and Egyptian history. And that’s a lead to Moses’ Pharoah because we know how long after Joseph the Exodus began.


The Bible never calls Joseph by his Egyptian name.

Likewise Egyptian writings never call Imhotep by his Biblical name, Joseph.

So linking those two is based on the time they lived and what their main accomplishments were.

link


Gen 41:41 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.




Gen 41:45 And Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnath-paaneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt.




Gen 50:26 So Joseph died, being an hundred and ten years old: and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.



Gen. 50:2 And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father: and the physicians embalmed Israel



Exod 13:19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for he had strictly sworn the sons of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you, and ye shall carry up my bones away from here with you.



From an inscription.

...during his reign lived Imouthes (Imhotep), who, because of his medical skill has the reputation of Asclepius (the Greek god of medicine) among the Egyptians and who was the inventor of the art of building with hewn stone.

Egyptian priest Manetho


…Imhotep, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Chief under the King, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary Lord, High Priest of Heliopolis, Imhotep the Builder, the Sculptor, the Maker of Stone Vases...

Found in the Step Pyramid in Sakkara, on the base of a statue.

In Gen 39 we read that the wife of Potiphar wants to sleep with Joseph. That happened in Memphis which is near Sakkarah.



An inscription about the seven fat and seven meager years was found near the Nile. It was carved out 1000+ times. Let’s compare a few sections.




I was in distress on the Great Throne

Gen. 41:8 And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled


I asked him who was the Chamberlain, … Imhotep, the son of Ptah… What is the birthplace of the Nile? Who is the god there? Who is the God?” Imhotep answers: „I need the guidance of Him who presides over the fowling net

Gen. 41:16 And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, It is not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace.

Son of Ptah=Imothep. Ptah is the Egyptian supreme creator god.

This god-like status is given to Joseph long after his death


The inscription states that river god Khumn spoke in the king’s dream that 7 bad years are followed by 7 good years.

Obviously that’s the reverse of what the Bible states but there is a certain resemblance.


Nile god Khumn orders that 10% of the harvest during 7 fat years was for Pharaoh. The Bible states 20%. Again no exact match but the inscription was made a 100 years after the events and was Egypianized.


The Pyramid of Teta…is one of the southern group of pyramids in Sakkara. The Arabs call it the “Prison Pyramid,” because local tradition says that it is built near the ruins of the prison where Joseph the patriarch was confined



I’ll close the section about Joseph with a list of all parallels. It’s highly unlikely it’s about different person










































3. Moses = Amenemhet IV

This clearly doesn’t align with the conclusion on the previous page, were Amenemhet IV was the evil Pharaoh that died in the Red Sea.
Like the previous page this page also sets the year of Exodus at 1446BC.

Moses was an adopted child (Exodus 2) and raised as an Egyptian bound to become the next Pharaoh. While traditional chronology has Amenemhet IV as sole ruling Pharaoh, in the revised chronology he is a co-ruler between.

Co-rule means Moses ruled together with Amenemhet III. Moses was the lesser Pharaoh so to speak.
Moses co-ruled for a little over 9 years, somewhere between 1495-1486BC.

That rule obviously ended after Moses killed the slave master and fled to Midian.

Acts 7:28 Do you not want to kill me the way you killed the Egyptian yesterday?"

Acts 7:29 "And Moses fled at this word. And he became a sojourner in the land of Midian," where he fathered two sons.

Acts 7:30 And forty years being fulfilled to him, the Messenger of YAHWEH appeared to him in a flame of fire in a bush in the wilderness of Mount Sinai.

Setting the starting year of the Exodus at 1446BC we arrive at the year 1486BC as the end of Moses’ co-reign. And that happens to align perfectly with the co-reign of Amenemhet IV.


Moses was found and raised by Sobeknefru. It’s not entirely clear who she was.; wife, sister or daughter of ruling Pharaoh Amenemhet III.
When Moses left there was suddenly no heir to the throne. Pharaoh died shortly after Moses fled and Sobeknefru became the next Pharaoh for a disputed duration of less that 4 years up to 8 years.
With the death of Sobeknefru and no heirs the 12th Dynasty ended.

Exod 4:19 And the LORD said unto Moses in Midian: 'Go, return into Egypt; for all the men are dead that sought thy life.'


When Moses returned Neferhotep (13th Dynasty) was the ruling Pharaoh.
Neferhotep was the Exodus Pharaho that died in the Red Sea.

With that the 13th Dynasty ended.

And that end also validates the Exodus and the suggested Pharaoh. A few quotes:

In recent years the idea of a simple Hyksos migration, with little or no war, has gained support. According to this theory, the Egyptian rulers of the Thirteenth Dynasty were preoccupied with domestic famine and plague, and they were too weak to stop the new migrants from entering and settling in Egypt.
Click

The plagues are described in Exodus. Famine is the obvious result if all crops are destroyed. The country was weak because most of it’s army perished in the Red Sea.


By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow; and having overpowered the rulers of the land they then burned our cities ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of the gods, and treated all the natives with a cruel hostility, massacring some and leading into slavery the wives and children of others.
Click

That sounds like easy victory over a country that lost most of its army in the Red Sea. But that’s a little troublesome because Sobeknefru ruled several years after the Exodus started. I would say that means she resisted the invaders for several years and that likely means some blows on both sides.
Maybe the following article explains that ‘contradiction’.


Egypt began to be invaded by a people "of obscure race", who became known as the Hyk-Sos, "shepherd kings". These Hyksos melted easily into Egyptian society at first; eventually they became very powerful, and finally, in a coup, they came to rule the whole of Northern Egypt,
Click

Placing that in the timeline it would mean they settled in Egypt at the start of the Exodus and their coup took place 4-8 years later when the rule of Sobeknefru ended.
The Hyksos likely were the Amalekites Joshua battled.




4. Conclusion